Frances Arnold is designing better enzymes for making biofuels from cellulose.
John Kitching's tiny magnetic-field sensors will take MRI where it's never gone before.
Norman Dovichi believes that detecting minute differences between individual cells could improve medical tests and treatments.
Kenneth Crozier and Federico Capasso have created light-focusing optical antennas that could lead to DVDs that hold hundreds of movies.
John Guttag says using computers to automate some diagnostics could make medicine more personal.
Richard Baraniuk and Kevin Kelly believe compressive sensing could help devices such as cameras and medical scanners capture images more efficiently.
Artificially structured metamaterials could transform telecommunications, data storage, and even solar energy, says David R. Smith.
Markus Kähäri wants to superimpose digital information on the real world.
Tiny fibers will save lives by stopping bleeding and aiding recovery from brain injury, says Rutledge Ellis-Behnke.
Karl Deisseroth's genetically engineered "light switch," which lets scientists turn selected parts of the brain on and off, may help improve treatments for depression and other disorders.