Since 1999, the editors of Technology Review have honored the young innovators whose inventions and research we find most exciting; today that collection is the TR35, a list of technologists and scientists, all under the age of 35. Their work--spanning medicine, computing, communications, electronics, nanotechnology, and more--is changing our world.
2004 Innovator of the Year: Scott Heiferman
2004 Humanitarian of the Year: Vikram Sheel Kumar
Created the Nets top social-networking site, where eight million people communicate with friends and friends of friends.
Started a Palo Alto, CA, firm to commercialize an encryption technology that uses a simple ID, such as an e-mail address, to ensure secure communications.
Adapts optical-communications technology to build receivers, transmitters, and interconnects that speed chip-to-chip communications within computers.
Found a way to spot colon cancer earlier than was previously possible
Leads one of the industrys top teams advancing ultrawideband wireless technology, which provides the high transmission speeds needed for streaming-media applications while consuming little power.
Created video software to analyze lab mice for adverse reactions to trial drugs.
He wants to replace physicians with molecular machines that diagnose and treat diseases with phenomenal precision.
Partnered with fellow TR100 honoree Serge Belongie (see above) to found a Redwood City, CA, biometrics company that specializes in fingerprint recog-nition for computer access.
Cofounded Quantum Dot to market the new imaging tool to biologists and drug developers
Built a router that examines the content and source of messages passing through it.
Uses organic and nanostructured semiconductors in devices such as light-emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, and chemical sensors.
Developer of strained silicon.
Invented a better approach to alleviating information overload.
Creates nanoscale silicon devices that can detect subatomic-scale movements.
Designs nanotechnological tools to detect viruses, bacteria, and, for the first time, single molecules of DNA in medical samples.
Specializes in multiplayer fantasy and role-playing games.
Invented techniques at Bell Labs that enable higher-speed transmission of data over very long distances (up to 6,400 kilometers) within fiber-optic networks.
Develops new types of quantum cascade microlasers with a variety of sensing and imaging applications.
Builds the machines needed to make high-quality, low-cost nanofabrication a reality.
Leads the effort to improve software quality and cut development costs.
Demonstrated the possibility of building new structures using the basic ingredients of nanotech.
Helped solve fundamental problems in nuclear-waste treatment
Develops photonic technologies that use targeted nanomaterials to detect, monitor, and treat breast and gynecologic cancers painlessly, and at a fraction of the cost of conventional approaches.
Pioneered a wireless technology to eliminate the wired connections between closely spaced chips in computer systems.
Slashed the cost of producing a DNA chip from hundreds of dollars to a few dollars by combining microfluidics, computer control, and novel electrochemistry.
Combines existing genes to build artificial biological pathways, or "circuits," that operate inside cells.
Helping to lead Amazons transformation, with its own virtual vending machines.
Created statistical models and design software to make materials development more efficient.
Constructs computer models of cellular pathways in order to optimize bacteria for energy production and environmental remediation.
Develops fuel cells that are practical for powering cars.
Serves as chief architect for IBMs WebFountain system.
Developed an entire radar system, squeezed into a single chip
Synthesized nanoscale particles with tiny, precisely defined pores.
Devised a new class of polymer nanotubes and other molecular building blocks. These novel materials have potential applications in the fabrication of nanosized electronic devices.
Built a database and developed software that would help people organize themselves.
Fabricates microscopic, deformable mirrors on computer chips that perform image correction for medical imaging, surveillance, and other applications.
Combines machine learning and graphics to capture the motion of actors, dancers, and athletes -- and to generate realistic animations for films and video games.
Aims to more than double human trials success rate by virtually prescreening drugs in computer models of human cells.
Launched a startup developing micropayments technology that allows artists, small businesses, and others to charge fees of as little as one cent for access to online content.
Crafts nanoparticles that would release chemicals inside the body to "program" immune cells to combat viral infections like HIV, to tolerate transplants, or even to destroy malignant tumors.
Develops microfluidics technologies that use tiny droplets to characterize the function and structure of proteins and to model complex biochemical processes.
Uses microscopic tips to deposit precise patterns of peptides directly onto tissues in the body.
Improved the security and privacy of radio frequency identification tags, as well as cryptographic tools for authentication systems.
Created a highly potent anthrax treatment in which each drug molecule blocks multiple toxin molecules rather than just one.
Builds nanoscale electrochemical and electrical sensors to detect medically relevant gene sequences and proteins.
Produces biomechanical data vital to the design of air bags and auto safety systems.
Exploits biology-based self-assembly to build molecular electronics. She created a self-assembled molecular-electronic device -- a carbon nanotube transistor -- using a DNA template.
Devised a way to remove kidney stones more cost effectively and less invasively by taking advantage of the ureters tendency to dilate around foreign objects.
Created a thermodynamic simulation that showed the feasibility of gasoline direct injection, which lowers auto fuel consumption and emissions and eliminates the electric starter.
Designed an electrically switchable surface coating that can alternate between attracting and repelling water.
Showed that a patient could achieve real-time control of a computer via electrodes placed on the brains surface.
Explores the artistic implications of information technology.
Etched optical bar codes into micrometer-size pieces of silicon. She hopes to use the technology to detect pollutants in water or cancerous cells within the body.
Applies evolutionary principles to synthetic molecules by linking starting materials to DNA strands.
Invented nano transfer printing
Aims to reprogram cancer cells to be more like normal cells by developing compounds that block the aberrant modification of DNA in cancer cells.
Develops more efficient ways of identifying, finding, and retrieving information on the Web.
Creates 3-D television and related 3-D photo and video systems that weave together images from multiple cameras.
Creates catalysts to reduce the number of steps needed to synthesize drugs, diminishing environmentally hazardous by-products.
Helped public-health officials control epidemics of walking pneumonia and SARS with sophisticated mathematical models that predict how a disease will spread through networks of human interactions.
Bridging the gap between research and patient care.
Facilitated noninvasive optical imaging of proteins and other molecules in the body, which could lead to ultraprecise diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.
Invented algorithms for simulating natural phenomena such as splashing water and explosions, for use in movies, video games, and advanced training simulations.
Patterned silicon to create minuscule "beakers" that hold only zeptoliters.
Replaced fuel cells plastic membranes with porous silicon.
Constructs more-intuitive human-computer interfaces.
Models how individual cells in tissues migrate, multiply, and develop during processes such as blood vessel growth. The models should aid tissue engineering and drug development.
Created materials that might soon make such integrated photonic circuits possible.
Built large computer display systems that seamlessly combine images from multiple projectors.
Created tools for monitoring and automatically managing Internet traffic on large networks.
Designed extremely-low-power wireless-sensor networks.
Built tiny generators for wireless sensor networks that convert low-level background vibrations into electricity, eliminating the need for batteries.
Discovered an enzyme that could enable environmentally benign production of fluorine-containing compounds such as Teflon and Prozac, which are now made via noxious chemical processes.
Invents new forms of digital visualization.
Helped develop blue-laser optical-disc storage systems with much greater capacity than todays DVDs. The discs are now being introduced commercially.
Works on inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials.
Determined how small, natural proteins boost the immune response.
Oversees the architecture of the communications chips used in advanced cellular systems now coming to market.
Developed interactive software that motivates patients to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes and AIDS.
Devised a software modeling tool that enabled him to design complex optical fibers now being manufactured for use in very-high-capacity communications systems.
Left software engineering to engineer startups.
Employed "augmented reality" technologies
Fine-tunes the activity of individual genes via an adaptable technology
Shown that she can control the behavior of gold nanoparticles.
Arrived at a new understanding of carbon nanotube surface chemistry.
Came up with the first method that allows researchers to pattern proteins and cells directly onto glass or plastic surfaces or within microfluidic channels without complicated preparation.
Spearheads efforts to commercialize the "plasmatron," a pollution control device that converts diesel fuel to hydrogen, cutting nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 90 percent.
Developed Movable Type.
Mena developed a simpler user interface which allows bloggers to create links to other pages by clicking and dragging items on-screen.
Devised sophisticated and accurate computer algorithms for analyzing data generated using DNA microarrays.
Conceived and built the worlds third-fastest supercomputer
Development of drugs to assist in the battle against TB.
Expanded the genetic code in order to allow living cells to incorporate new, unnatural building blocks into the proteins that they make.
Uses clever testing schemes to determine which protein- slicing enzymes make the cut as potential drugs.
Devised ways to hide digital watermarks in financial statements and other electronic documents to authenticate records, prevent fraud, and deter unauthorized distribution.
Demonstrated the first-ever two-qubit logic gate in a solid-state device, an advance crucial to building an ultrafast quantum computer.
Designs "smart" photonic devices for lightning-fast computers and communications networks.
Improved roaming between cellular networks
Simplified the production of magnetic RAM
She has filmed a single influenza virus infecting a cell.