Since 1999, the editors of Technology Review have honored the young innovators whose inventions and research we find most exciting; today that collection is the TR35, a list of technologists and scientists, all under the age of 35. Their work--spanning medicine, computing, communications, electronics, nanotechnology, and more--is changing our world.
2004 Innovator of the Year: Scott Heiferman
2004 Humanitarian of the Year: Vikram Sheel Kumar
Found a way to spot colon cancer earlier than was previously possible
He wants to replace physicians with molecular machines that diagnose and treat diseases with phenomenal precision.
Develops photonic technologies that use targeted nanomaterials to detect, monitor, and treat breast and gynecologic cancers painlessly, and at a fraction of the cost of conventional approaches.
Slashed the cost of producing a DNA chip from hundreds of dollars to a few dollars by combining microfluidics, computer control, and novel electrochemistry.
Combines existing genes to build artificial biological pathways, or "circuits," that operate inside cells.
Constructs computer models of cellular pathways in order to optimize bacteria for energy production and environmental remediation.
Aims to more than double human trials success rate by virtually prescreening drugs in computer models of human cells.
Builds nanoscale electrochemical and electrical sensors to detect medically relevant gene sequences and proteins.
Devised a way to remove kidney stones more cost effectively and less invasively by taking advantage of the ureters tendency to dilate around foreign objects.
Designed an electrically switchable surface coating that can alternate between attracting and repelling water.
Showed that a patient could achieve real-time control of a computer via electrodes placed on the brains surface.
Applies evolutionary principles to synthetic molecules by linking starting materials to DNA strands.
Aims to reprogram cancer cells to be more like normal cells by developing compounds that block the aberrant modification of DNA in cancer cells.
Helped public-health officials control epidemics of walking pneumonia and SARS with sophisticated mathematical models that predict how a disease will spread through networks of human interactions.
Bridging the gap between research and patient care.
Facilitated noninvasive optical imaging of proteins and other molecules in the body, which could lead to ultraprecise diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.
Models how individual cells in tissues migrate, multiply, and develop during processes such as blood vessel growth. The models should aid tissue engineering and drug development.
Discovered an enzyme that could enable environmentally benign production of fluorine-containing compounds such as Teflon and Prozac, which are now made via noxious chemical processes.
Determined how small, natural proteins boost the immune response.
Developed interactive software that motivates patients to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes and AIDS.
Fine-tunes the activity of individual genes via an adaptable technology
Came up with the first method that allows researchers to pattern proteins and cells directly onto glass or plastic surfaces or within microfluidic channels without complicated preparation.
Devised sophisticated and accurate computer algorithms for analyzing data generated using DNA microarrays.
Development of drugs to assist in the battle against TB.
Expanded the genetic code in order to allow living cells to incorporate new, unnatural building blocks into the proteins that they make.
Uses clever testing schemes to determine which protein- slicing enzymes make the cut as potential drugs.
She has filmed a single influenza virus infecting a cell.