Since 1999, the editors of Technology Review have honored the young innovators whose inventions and research we find most exciting; today that collection is the TR35, a list of technologists and scientists, all under the age of 35. Their work--spanning medicine, computing, communications, electronics, nanotechnology, and more--is changing our world.
2004 Innovator of the Year: Scott Heiferman
2004 Humanitarian of the Year: Vikram Sheel Kumar
Cofounded Quantum Dot to market the new imaging tool to biologists and drug developers
Uses organic and nanostructured semiconductors in devices such as light-emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, and chemical sensors.
Developer of strained silicon.
Creates nanoscale silicon devices that can detect subatomic-scale movements.
Designs nanotechnological tools to detect viruses, bacteria, and, for the first time, single molecules of DNA in medical samples.
Builds the machines needed to make high-quality, low-cost nanofabrication a reality.
Demonstrated the possibility of building new structures using the basic ingredients of nanotech.
Helped solve fundamental problems in nuclear-waste treatment
Created statistical models and design software to make materials development more efficient.
Develops fuel cells that are practical for powering cars.
Synthesized nanoscale particles with tiny, precisely defined pores.
Devised a new class of polymer nanotubes and other molecular building blocks. These novel materials have potential applications in the fabrication of nanosized electronic devices.
Crafts nanoparticles that would release chemicals inside the body to "program" immune cells to combat viral infections like HIV, to tolerate transplants, or even to destroy malignant tumors.
Develops microfluidics technologies that use tiny droplets to characterize the function and structure of proteins and to model complex biochemical processes.
Uses microscopic tips to deposit precise patterns of peptides directly onto tissues in the body.
Created a highly potent anthrax treatment in which each drug molecule blocks multiple toxin molecules rather than just one.
Exploits biology-based self-assembly to build molecular electronics. She created a self-assembled molecular-electronic device -- a carbon nanotube transistor -- using a DNA template.
Etched optical bar codes into micrometer-size pieces of silicon. She hopes to use the technology to detect pollutants in water or cancerous cells within the body.
Invented nano transfer printing
Creates catalysts to reduce the number of steps needed to synthesize drugs, diminishing environmentally hazardous by-products.
Patterned silicon to create minuscule "beakers" that hold only zeptoliters.
Replaced fuel cells plastic membranes with porous silicon.
Works on inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials.
Shown that she can control the behavior of gold nanoparticles.
Arrived at a new understanding of carbon nanotube surface chemistry.
Spearheads efforts to commercialize the "plasmatron," a pollution control device that converts diesel fuel to hydrogen, cutting nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 90 percent.
Demonstrated the first-ever two-qubit logic gate in a solid-state device, an advance crucial to building an ultrafast quantum computer.
Designs "smart" photonic devices for lightning-fast computers and communications networks.
Simplified the production of magnetic RAM