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Now Available: Innovators Under 35 2013 See The 2013 List »

Robert Frederick, 31

Helping to lead Amazons transformation, with its own virtual vending machines.

Senior technical manager,

You probably think of as a place to buy everything from books to kitchenware. But thats only a part of what the company aspires to be. Programmer Robert Frederick is leading Amazons transformation into something more like the Coca-Cola of e-commerce, with its own virtual vending machines -- each a gateway to Amazons entire inventory -- scattered across thousands of third-party websites. Its all part of a grand vision starring Amazon as the Webs central platform for almost any kind of online purchase. Frederick got his start at the company five years ago by building Amazon Anywhere, software that prepares data from Amazons vast product database for display on cell phones and other mobile devices. From there, it was a short conceptual step to opening up Amazons database to any independent Web merchant or programmer with a need for product information. And the resulting tools -- a set of standardized commands for interacting with Amazons database, built around XML and other new Web standards for describing content -- have allowed outsiders to soup up their businesses with a range of Amazon services. More than 60,000 Web developers have signed up to use Amazons new services, with many hoping to bring new customers to their sites -- and earn a commission of up to 10 percent on every sale.

2004 TR35 Winners

Jonathan Abrams

Created the Nets top social-networking site, where eight million people communicate with friends and friends of friends.

Guido Appenzeller

Started a Palo Alto, CA, firm to commercialize an encryption technology that uses a simple ID, such as an e-mail address, to ensure secure communications.

Alyssa Apsel

Adapts optical-communications technology to build receivers, transmitters, and interconnects that speed chip-to-chip communications within computers.

Anuj Batra

Leads one of the industrys top teams advancing ultrawideband wireless technology, which provides the high transmission speeds needed for streaming-media applications while consuming little power.

Serge Belongie

Created video software to analyze lab mice for adverse reactions to trial drugs.

Vance Bjorn

Partnered with fellow TR100 honoree Serge Belongie (see above) to found a Redwood City, CA, biometrics company that specializes in fingerprint recog-nition for computer access.

David Brussin

Built a router that examines the content and source of messages passing through it.

J. J. Cadiz

Invented a better approach to alleviating information overload.

Tianqaio Chen

Specializes in multiplayer fantasy and role-playing games.

Aref Chowdhury

Invented techniques at Bell Labs that enable higher-speed transmission of data over very long distances (up to 6,400 kilometers) within fiber-optic networks.

Raffaele Colombelli

Develops new types of quantum cascade microlasers with a variety of sensing and imaging applications.

Adrian Colyer

Leads the effort to improve software quality and cut development costs.

Robert Drost

Pioneered a wireless technology to eliminate the wired connections between closely spaced chips in computer systems.

Robert Frederick

Helping to lead Amazons transformation, with its own virtual vending machines.

Dan Gruhl

Serves as chief architect for IBMs WebFountain system.

Ali Hajimiri

Developed an entire radar system, squeezed into a single chip

Scott Heiferman

Built a database and developed software that would help people organize themselves.

Michael Helmbrecht

Fabricates microscopic, deformable mirrors on computer chips that perform image correction for medical imaging, surveillance, and other applications.

Aaron Hertzmann

Combines machine learning and graphics to capture the motion of actors, dancers, and athletes -- and to generate realistic animations for films and video games.

Kurt Huang

Launched a startup developing micropayments technology that allows artists, small businesses, and others to charge fees of as little as one cent for access to online content.

Ari Juels

Improved the security and privacy of radio frequency identification tags, as well as cryptographic tools for authentication systems.

Richard Kent

Produces biomechanical data vital to the design of air bags and auto safety systems.

Andre Kulzer

Created a thermodynamic simulation that showed the feasibility of gasoline direct injection, which lowers auto fuel consumption and emissions and eliminates the electric starter.

Golan Levin

Explores the artistic implications of information technology.

Massimo Marchiori

Develops more efficient ways of identifying, finding, and retrieving information on the Web.

Wojciech Matusik

Creates 3-D television and related 3-D photo and video systems that weave together images from multiple cameras.

James OBrien

Invented algorithms for simulating natural phenomena such as splashing water and explosions, for use in movies, video games, and advanced training simulations.

Nuria Oliver

Constructs more-intuitive human-computer interfaces.

Maria Petrucci-Samija

Created materials that might soon make such integrated photonic circuits possible.

Ramesh Raskar

Built large computer display systems that seamlessly combine images from multiple projectors.

Jennifer Rexford

Created tools for monitoring and automatically managing Internet traffic on large networks.

Sokwoo Rhee

Designed extremely-low-power wireless-sensor networks.

Shad Roundy

Built tiny generators for wireless sensor networks that convert low-level background vibrations into electricity, eliminating the need for batteries.

Jesse Schell

Invents new forms of digital visualization.

Kees Schep

Helped develop blue-laser optical-disc storage systems with much greater capacity than todays DVDs. The discs are now being introduced commercially.

Chaitail Sengupta

Oversees the architecture of the communications chips used in advanced cellular systems now coming to market.

Pierre Sillard

Devised a software modeling tool that enabled him to design complex optical fibers now being manufactured for use in very-high-capacity communications systems.

Simeon Simeonov

Left software engineering to engineer startups.

Charlotte Skourup

Employed "augmented reality" technologies

Ben Trott

Developed Movable Type.

Mena Trott

Mena developed a simpler user interface which allows bloggers to create links to other pages by clicking and dragging items on-screen.

Srinidhi Varadarajan

Conceived and built the worlds third-fastest supercomputer

Min Wu

Devised ways to hide digital watermarks in financial statements and other electronic documents to authenticate records, prevent fraud, and deter unauthorized distribution.

Qian Zhang

Improved roaming between cellular networks


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