Select your localized edition:

Close ×

More Ways to Connect

Discover one of our 28 local entrepreneurial communities »

Be the first to know as we launch in new countries and markets around the globe.

Interested in bringing MIT Technology Review to your local market?

MIT Technology ReviewMIT Technology Review - logo


Now Available: Innovators Under 35 2013 See The 2013 List »

Peter Meinhold, 34

Engineering a better bug for biofuels

Courtesy of Gevo

As a biofuel, ethanol is relatively easy to make, but it has a lower energy density than gasoline and can't be transported through existing pipelines designed for petroleum fuels. Isobutanol, however, can be sent through these pipelines, and its energy density is close to that of gasoline. It can also be turned into jet fuel, and it can be used as a raw material for the manufacture of plastics and many other chemicals normally derived from petroleum.

Both ethanol and isobutanol are made from sugars produced by breaking down biomass. But it's not easy to produce isobutanol with the help of microbes like the ones that ferment those sugars into ethanol. So Peter Meinhold rewired the yeast genome, replacing genes that controlled ethanol fermentation with genes for a enzymatic pathway that would produce isobutanol. He cofounded Gevo in 2005 to commercialize the technology and produce isobutanol that would be cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels.

Gevo has also enhanced the isobutanol-producing capacity of its yeast by developing a system that continously removes isobutanol as it is produced. (Otherwise, high concentrations of isobutanol would inhibit the growth of the yeast.) The company is also developing new versions of the yeast that can feed on sugars produced from grasses and wood chips. In 2009, Gevo announced the startup of a million-gallon-per-year demonstration facility retrofitted into an ethanol plant. The company has set a goal of going to market by 2012. --Nidhi Subbaraman

2010 TR35 Winners

David Bradwell

Cheap, reliable batteries to store renewable energy

Hany Eitouni

Making safer batteries with solid polymers

Peter Meinhold

Engineering a better bug for biofuels

Jochen Mundinger

Reducing the carbon footprint of travel

Lyndon Rive

Leasing solar power

Chris Rivest

Printing cheaper solar cells


More Innovators Under 35: